Linux Programming for beginners
This section should help you to start programming in Linux. I will cover
here only the basics like installation of gcc compiler, make utility and I show you,
how to write makefile.
If you want to start programming in Linux, you can of course choose to use
IDE (Integrated Development Environment) as Code Blocks etc.
1. gcc and make
Before you start programming, you have to check whether you have already
had installed gcc compiler and make utility by typing:
The output of these commands should be the paths where they are located.
If so, you can skip the Installation of gcc and make
If you get no output read the next paragraph. Also you can find out the version
of gcc and make by typing:
of course only when they are installed.
2. Installation of gcc and make
This varies on different Linux distributions.
On Debian and his derivates (Ubuntu/Xubuntu, etc) type:
sudo apt-get install gcc
sudo apt-get install make
to install gcc compiler and make utility.
On Fedora use yum instead of apt-get:
sudo yum install gcc
sudo yum install make
If it doesn't work, you have to download gcc and make from their official sites here:
You will find everything about installing them on this sites.
3. The C code
Now you have to write some code in C and save it into file with extension
.c for example main.c
The basic Hello World program should looks like this:
This code will write Hello World on the output after launching. Before launching
you need to compile it by using gcc with make.
4. make and makefile
make is a utility that automatically builds executable programs and libraries
from source code by reading files called makefiles which specify how to derive
the target program. Now you need to create a file called makefile.
Make sure that makefile is in the same directory as your .c file (main.c
#This is a comment in makefile
NAME=main #the name of program
CC=gcc #using of gcc compiler
CFLAGS=-std=c99 -pedantic -Wall #compiler flags
$(NAME): $(NAME).c #the rule for making main
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(NAME).c -o $(NAME)
-std=c99 # this flag tells the compiler to use the standard ISO C99
-pedantic # takes care that the program strictly follows the standard ISO C99
-Wall # turns on warning messages
Rule for making:
will replace $(NAME)
because we declared:
and it tells that main
(executable) will be created from
In Linux - main
is like .exe file in Windows.
You should read something about basic Linux/UNIX commands.
You can learn the basics for example
Or try to search for 'basic linux commands' on Google.
So we have main.c
both in the same directory.
Now we have to run make utility which builds program.
You need to run terminal and get to the directory where you saved main.c
For example, if you have main.c
in the Desktop
directory, run terminal and type:
this command will get you into Desktop folder.
You can check whether you are in right directory by typing:
and you can also use:
command to list directory contents.
When you are in the right directory with main.c
you just need to type:
make will create executable main
in the same directory.
Start the program by typing: